The CAS statement said: "In its decisions, the CAS arbitrators have considered that the process created by the IOC to establish an invitation list of Russian athletes to compete as Olympic Athletes from Russia (OAR) could not be described as a sanction but rather as an eligibility decision".
At the same time, the IOC allowed clean athletes to participate in the upcoming games as "Olympic Athletes of Russian Federation".
The lower house of Russian parliament issued a statement on Friday protesting the court's decision.
"A small glimmer of hope in an otherwise dark and sordid affair", US anti-doping chief Travis Tygart said.
Whistleblowers have been increasingly important in the fight against doping, with a number of Russian insiders at the heart of the allegations that led the nation to be banned from some sports at the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics and the entire Pyeongchang 2018 Winter Olympics - although some individual athletes have been permitted to compete. "It's hard for CAS to make decisions against the backdrop of an earlier pressure", Russian Deputy Prime Minister Vitaly Mutko told Interfax news agency, referring to objections from the International Olympic Committee.
The son of the Soviet basketball athlete, who was a member of the national team that defeated the U.S. team in the 1972 Olympic Men's Basketball Final for the first time in history of the Olympic Games, said that sports could bring the positions of Russian Federation and the United States closer and to mend ties between the two countries.
It also banned dozens of athletes from the Games for life and stripped their Sochi Games medals following several investigations into the doping affair. "Right now the athletes, along with the lawyers, are considering possible legal actions which might be taken".
The ruling followed a CAS announcement on Thursday (February 8) claimed it did not have the jurisdiction to deal with cases filed by six Russian athletes, including speed skaters Denis Yuskov and Pavel Kulizhnikov, and seven coaches.
That's why the CAS decision, which upheld the IOC's right to decide who could compete at its biannual party, was merely a brief respite in the never-ending war on doping.
Successful appeals would be a blow to the International Olympic Committee, which would have to accept athletes it deems suspicious.
They will wear a uniform with that name on it, and the Olympic anthem will be played at any medal ceremonies for Russian athletes.
Walden has accused the International Olympic Committee and CAS of being "complicit in enabling Russian doping" for not implementing strong punishments for Russian athletes, including a blanket ban.
Addressing supporters in Moscow, Putin said "there were instances of doping use, true - I want the audience to know this and the whole country to know this".
The easy way out: when you come up with a plan, and you can articulate reasons for the plan, whether the reasons are or are not slam-dunk great, then you have a reasonably legitimate chance to prevail. "That's what I hope".